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Thread: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

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    1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)



    1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign

    By Pete Dunton

    http://www.ericpetersautos.com/home/...5&Itemid=10684

    Every good thing must come to an end. The year 1970 was the pinnacle of General Motors (GM) high performance engines. Never again would there be such an array of different high performance V8s available from GM. Everything from small block to big block V8s was available and this included a wide array of small, medium, and large displacement V8s. This meant there was a high performance V8 from all GM divisions to meet every customer's needs. Even GM's luxury division Cadillac, packed a serious punch with its high compression large displacement V8s in 1970, its top V8 for 1970 was the high compression 500 CID V8 rated at 400 gross horsepower.

    It was no surprise the array of great performance engines Chevrolet, Pontiac, and even Oldsmobile offered for 1970. The real surprise from GM for 1970 was Buick, a division with no racing heritage and a modest engine development budget. Buick during this time was the conservative division that offered big solid reliable cars for those higher up in the age range. In other words it was not the division that catered to young baby boomers but more the division of your dear old aunt Gertrude.

    Pontiac had started the muscle car craze when they introduced the 1964 GTO. Within a few years just about every different automaker had a high performance GTO competitor. Buick jumped into the muscle car market in 1965 with the intermediate A-body Gran Sport, essentially a Buick Skylark with a few performance goodies. Buick did provide a good motor that year for the 15,000 buyers who bought a 1965 Buick Gran Sport, the 401 nailhead V8 which Buick simply called the ?400?. GM at this time had an internal edict that disallowed small and intermediate cars (except for the Corvette) from having an engine with a displacement larger than 400 cubic inches.

    The 1965 Gran Sport was no slouch when it came to performance with 325 horsepower, however the 401 was no match for the 1965 tri-power 389 Pontiac GTO and the 1965 Chevrolet Chevelle SS (Z-16) 396. The 401 powered ?65 GS performed the 1/4 mile in 16.6 seconds at 86 mph. In 1967 Buick replaced the nailhead 401 with an entirely new 400 CID V8 that produced 340 horsepower. For 1967 the Grand Sport name was shorted to GS. By 1969 Buick was becoming serious about competing with the big boys by introducing two genuine 14 second range 1/4 mile GS engine options - the 400 CID Stage 1 and 400 CID Stage 2 both of which were very conservatively rated at 345 and 360 horsepower respectively.

    GM removed the 400 CID limit for the 1970 model year on all intermediate GM cars. Pontiac, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile, and Buick then offered larger than 400 CID motors in their A-bodies as a result. For 1970 Buick was trying to cover all the bases, it had a small block 350 CID V8 rated at 315 horsepower, a 455 CID V8 rated at an impressive 350 horsepower, and the mighty 455 CID Stage 1 rated at 360 horsepower. The 455 V8 was new to Buick in 1970, it had a monster bore of 4.3125" yet the same 3.90" stroke of the previous year's 400 CID V8. The standard 455 was good for 14 second range 1/4 mile times.

    As the 1970 model year began, it soon became apparent that one of the strongest performance contenders was the 1970 GS 455 Stage 1. In fact the greatest shocker was a bone stock 1970 GS 455 Stage 1 as published in the January 1970 issue of Motor Trend magazine completed the 1/4 mile in an earth shattering 13.38 seconds at 105.5 mph. The 1/4 mile time was so impressive Motor Trend at the time called the 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 the fastest muscle car they ever tested. As a comparison Motor Trend magazine in its September 1969 issue obtained a 13.78 second 1/4 mile time for the legendary 1970 Plymouth Cuda (426 Hemi with 425 horsepower). Even the highest horsepower rated muscle car in the golden era - the Chevelle SS LS6 454 (450 horsepower) in most magazine tests back in the day recorded slower mile times than the Motor Trend 1970 GS Stage 1 time. As an example Car & Driver magazine around this time obtained a 13.8 second 1/4 mile time with a 1970 Chevelle SS LS6. Car Craft magazine (11/69), did however move a Chevelle SS LS6 down the mile at a lightening quick 13.12 seconds. Getting back to the GS, the performance of the Stage 1 is even more impressive when you consider the GS's curb weight is a heavy 3,800 lbs. Back in the day, it did not take a genius to realize Buick?s 360 horsepower rating for the Stage 1 455 was very underrated.

    The Stage 1 455 received its power from high performance heads, a high performance Rochester Quadrajet carburetor, a hot cam, a high performance distributor, and bigger valves. And sitting on top of this wonderful motor, there was a decorative air filter assembly with two attached foam boxes that sucked in cold air from two hood flaps. The hood flaps were opened once the motor warmed up. Not only was the Stage 1 loaded with horsepower, its 510 lbs/ft of torque was enough to uproot large trees. Buick would continue the Stage 1 455 option through the 1973 model year on the GS, but after 1970 horsepower would drastically decline.

    Buick also introduced a GTO Judge type version of the GS in the middle of the 1970 model year - the Buick GSX. The GSX was a GS with a wild paint scheme, stripes and new front/rear spoilers. The GSX was clearly marketed to the younger crowd. There were only two engine options available for the 1970 GSX - the 455 and the 455 Stage 1. The GSX would last two more years, being laid to rest at the end of the 1972 model year.

    Buick certainly made muscle car history in 1970. As good as it got in 1970 for Buick, sadly only a little over 3,000 1970 Stage 1 455 V8s were produced. For 1970 only the Buick GS and GSX could be ordered with the Stage 1 455. As the 1970s progressed Buick went back to its roots of making cars for the older more conservative crowd. Buick would only repeat its 1970 reign at the top again a little more than 15 years later with the 1986 - 1987 Buick SFI turbo 3.8 liter V6 Grand National. As the old saying goes - "he who laughs last, laughs best", Buick must have had one heck of a good laugh as the high compression muscle car era came to a close for GM in 1970 while it was on top.


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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Here's a good video of a 1970 Buick GS Stage 1 455:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdVi4zdRuJQ

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    Vulture of The Western World Eric's Avatar
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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Next to Pontiacs, for me, are Buicks (and then Oldsmobiles). Compared to the GS, a Chevelle seems crude and hamfisted (just like a Camaro compared to a Firebird!).

    I knew a guy in college who had a convertible GS; I forget what year it was. The thing was fairly beat up - but would still push you backin your seat - and barked the tires on the 1-2 upshift!

    Great memories, Pete - and nice article!

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Eric,

    Thanks. It seems that Pontiac folks like Oldsmobiles and Buicks if given the opportunity to own anything other than a Pontiac. If there was never a Pontiac division I would probably own a Hurst Olds, 442, or a GS. You said it best the Chevys look crude and have a bland character to them. For instance a '70 Chevelle SS to me is fast but just does not as good as a '70 GTO, '70 442, or '70 GS.


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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Quote Originally Posted by Pete
    Here's a good video of a 1970 Buick GS Stage 1 455:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdVi4zdRuJQ
    That is a good video, and thanks for the link, but there is something fishy about that car. It is claimed to be "all original", including the engine, yet at the end of the segment the host says they were running 12.7 @ "over 107 MPH." Keep in mind, that was on street tires with a passenger inside and an automatic transmission. (The Motor Trend test car only ran 13.38 @ 105.5.) I don't believe the GS in the video is "all original" and I don't believe it was running those times on the show. Did you notice that when they did those runs at the dragstrip the results board at the end of the track was never shown?? I can believe that car has run a 12.7 under optimal conditions (i.e., on slicks, "track tuning", no passengers), but I doubt if it was running anything close to those times the day that segment was filmed.

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    I think part of the difference is modern tires. Huge traction difference from the originals.

    Chip H.

    Former owner: 2012 Honda Civic LX, 2006 Honda Ridgeline RTL, 2000 Honda CR-V EX, 2003 MINI Cooper S, 1992 Honda Accord LX, 1999 Mercedes ML-320, 1995 VW Jetta GLX, 1991 Mercury Capri XR2, 1981 Mercury Zephyr, 1975 Chevrolet Impala

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Quote Originally Posted by chiph
    I think part of the difference is modern tires. Huge traction difference from the originals.
    Good point, but that GS is not going to run "mid 12s" as claimed in the video (btw, not 12.7 as I said before) on modern street tires. With a passenger, etc. However, it is not clear from the video what kind of rubber is on the rears. They look like regular street tires, but they may be those sneaky Drag Radials. In any case, if that car was actually running 12s on the video they certainly would have shown it on the display at the end of the track. You know the timing system was turned on because the tree was "live" at the starting line. Actually, they do show the display at the end of the run but they cut away from it before the results were flashed up there. I'm sure that was intentional.

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Until I read your article, I didn't realize you could order the Stage 1 package with any GS. I thought it was part of the GSX package. As you point out, they are two separate options and the GSX option is purely cosmetic. That made the GS Stage 1 the ultimate sleeper car -- until the 1986/1987 Buick Regal T-Type came along. The Grand National got all the attention, but that, too, was merely a cosmetic option. You could order any Regal with the 3.8L SFI Turbo engine and the G80 positraction. That two-tone brown and beige Regal with the vinyl top, chrome trim and column shifter (Grandpa's car) might hold the turbo engine and drivetrain. The hood bulge is the only giveaway. Actually, the T-Type should be slightly faster than a GN because it is a little lighter, mainly because of aluminum wheels on the T-type vs. steel ones on the GN.

    Doing some additional research on the 1970 GS, I found that you could order the Stage 1 package with a 3.64 posi rear end and a 4-speed manual w/ a Hurst shifter. I wonder how many were ordered that way? The 1970 Motor Trend test car you mentioned (13.38 @ 105.5) had the 3.64 gear and an automatic transmission. I'm sure there has been much discussion over which transmission - automatic or manual - is faster with the 3.64 gears. Given the tall gearing, I would guess that it was a toss-up.

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    MrMike,

    Excellent feedback and questions. Unfortunately I don't know how many Stage 1 GSs with the 4-speed/3.64 gear ratio were produced for 1970 (I have been unable to find a breakdown thus far of these figures). As for which Stage 1 is faster the TH400 automatic or the 4-speed that's a good question. I would imagine the advantage would go to the 4-speed since one could speed shift it however the TH400 trannys on the 1970 GS were pretty well setup and shifted very precisely and the Motor Trend car had the automatic. The same was true with the 1970 Chevelle SS LS6 with the TH400 automatic, a lot of the LS6 guys prefer the TH400 automatic over the 4-speed since the LS6 with the TH400 was so quick.

    Good point about being able to order in 1987 the LC2 on any Regal. I had a friend years ago who owned a base '87 Buick Regal with the SFI turbo 3.8 liter V6 (it was not a T-type). The car was the ultimate sleeper it had the auto shifter on the column and a bench seat. The car was pretty base with the standard interior and no power options. It had been ordered by the original owner as a sleeper, my friend bought it from the original owner. He tweaked the car and improved the performance of the car while keeping it looking stock. I lost touch with my friend so I don't know what happened to that car.

  10. #10
    MrMike
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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Quote Originally Posted by Pete
    I lost touch with my friend so I don't know what happened to that car.
    It probably had the hell beat out of it, like most of the Buick Turbos did. Have you ever noticed how rare it is to see one on the street anymore?

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Quote Originally Posted by MrMike
    Quote Originally Posted by Pete
    I lost touch with my friend so I don't know what happened to that car.
    It probably had the hell beat out of it, like most of the Buick Turbos did. Have you ever noticed how rare it is to see one on the street anymore?
    They were also relatively low production... what's really something, in my opinion, is how third gen. F-cars have virtually disappeared. Remember when IROC-Zs and Trans-Am GTAs were as common as Corollas? I hardly ever see one anymore - and when I do, it's usually a broken down POS sitting in front of a trailer someplace.....

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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    MrMike,

    You are right many of the turbo Buicks bit the dust. I knew a guy in college around 1990 who had a 1985 Buick Riviera T-Type that had the SFI 3.8 liter turbo V6 (non -intercooled). His parents bought it new and gave it to him a few years later. He ragged that car hard, did not take care of it. That car probably bit the dust. I used to tell him to take care of it, it would be worth something someday, since it was a rare piece with the Buick 3.8 turbo V6. He used to laugh. That car would really move (probably one of the fastest Rivieras ever made), I hope it survived.

    Eric,

    I agree the third gens are disappearing and I have noticed it in the last year especially. The early third gens disappeared back in the late 1990s, but the late ones are now disappearing. I used to see on a regular basis the latter 3rd gens. Now its becoming a rarity. And when I do see them, their ragged on as you mentioned.


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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    "I agree the third gens are disappearing and I have noticed it in the last year especially. The early third gens disappeared back in the late 1990s, but the late ones are now disappearing. I used to see on a regular basis the latter 3rd gens. Now its becoming a rarity. And when I do see them, their ragged on as you mentioned."

    I think this bears out my hypothesis that "modern" old cars can't survive beyond 20 years or so - not in large numbers, anyhow.

    The cost/complexity of keeping, say, a mid-1980s IROC-Z alive became too great for most of the people who owned them by the late 1990s/early 2000s (people who almost by definition - since we are talking about 15-year-old and older cars -are not rich folks who can afford to throw thousands of dollars at an old car that is probably worth less than $5k).

    So they got junked.

    Keeping one of these cars emissions compliant is, all by itself, a huge/expensive obstacle. $2,000 for a new TPI set-up? $1,500 for a pair of cats?

    Forget about it!

    I have yet to see/encounter a single "modern" mass produced car survive as a mass market collector car; there are a relative handful of cars, such as the Regal GNs (which were almost instant classics anyhow). But these were - from the get-go - cars for the affluent.

    The rest are gone with the wind.

    Compare this with, say, the survivability rate of our second-gen F-cars. There were (and still are) plenty of them out there, decades after the last one was built. Why? Because unlike the third gen cars, a '70-'81 Camaro or Firebird can be serviced and repaired by almost anyone with basic mechanical skills; most regular service parts are still cheap (less expensive than parts for new cars) and easy to get, too. A kid can keep one up on a McDonalds' budget. That is much harder to do with a third gen. car.


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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Eric,

    You make some valid points, the computer controlled cars are more difficult to troubleshoot problems but not impossible. And though they are more expensive, some will opt to keep their 1981 to current (computer controlled) cars on the road.

    From my vantage point I see more 3rd gen than 2nd gen f-bodies on the road in my area. I believe the 3rd gens disappearing has more to do with age. The 80's fox body 5.0 liter Mustangs are also disappearing when they were a dime a dozen just a few short years ago. I think what happens is cars get trashed and the ones that get preserved get tucked away in the garage and driven very rarely so they aren't seen very often.

    I would be the first to admit the computer controlled cars are harder to work on and parts are more expensive however as time passes on and the Iroc-Z that you mentioned will go up in value so the extra cost will be worth it to keep it on the road.

    As a side note the older (non-computer controlled) cars such as the 2nd generation T/As are not cheap to maintain either. As for most mechanics they know computer controlled fuel injection but most don't know squat about carbs (its been almost 20 years since the last carb vehicles rolled off the assembly line). With old cars if you can't get somebody to rebuild a carb or adjust it right owners will be getting rid of the car. Most people can't rebuild a carb especially a complicated carb like the Quadrajet. And correct replacement carbs are going through the roof in terms of prices. For instance a '79 W72 Quadrajet core went for around $100 just a few years ago and it was $200 to get somebody to rebuild it for you ($300.00 total cost). The '79 W72 Quadrajets are now going as high as $400 just for a core. And a good rebuild is now another $400 if you have somebody do it for you that's $800 when it was $300 a few years ago. The Ram Air IV, LS5 455 HO, SD455, etc. Quadrajets are going for $2000.00 for a core only. So unfortunately the days of maintaining older cars on a decent budget are long gone too. The thing about some of the 1980s computer controlled cars - Mustangs, Camaros, Firebirds, 442s, Hurst/Olds, Thunderbirds, Monte Carlos, Regals, etc. is that they have enough of a following and there will be some good ones that survive or get restored and will continue to be maintained. Owning older cars and maintaining them whether computer controlled or not, is not a cheap proposition.


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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    I have heard about crude fuel injection systems being installed on formerly carburettered cars. Is that true. With a crude TPI system that doesn't have feedback controls for emissions purposes, you get better cold start and running characteristics. Is that true? It probably doesn't sound as good, but it shouldn't be too bad either.

    Seems like that would be a solution to some of the cars built in the kate 1970's and early 1980s withnasty smog controlled carbs.

    The other thing that you may consider are reasonable ssuspension upgrades. (thicker roll bars, urethane bushings, etc) I'm also not opposed to rack and pinion steering....

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    Vulture of The Western World Eric's Avatar
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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Quote Originally Posted by swamprat
    I have heard about crude fuel injection systems being installed on formerly carburettered cars. Is that true. With a crude TPI system that doesn't have feedback controls for emissions purposes, you get better cold start and running characteristics. Is that true? It probably doesn't sound as good, but it shouldn't be too bad either.

    Seems like that would be a solution to some of the cars built in the kate 1970's and early 1980s withnasty smog controlled carbs.

    The other thing that you may consider are reasonable ssuspension upgrades. (thicker roll bars, urethane bushings, etc) I'm also not opposed to rack and pinion steering....
    Most of the early (US) EFI systems were throttle body injection (TBI) - which is similar to a carb in that there was typically one central injector feeding into a common manifold plenum instead of individual injectors for each port, as is common today.

    The computers used to control these TBI systems were not as powerful or reliable as today's ECUs; also, these cars had more primitive emissions systems - as well as (inmany cases) engines designed much earlier, in pre-smog times, which had to be "tuned" into emissions compliance.

    Of course, the electronically controlled carbs that preceded them were even worse!

    But those were only used for a few years - early-mid 1980s, actually.

    In the '70s, carbs were emissions calibrated - but they were not electronically controlled (for the most part). And re-calibrating them for performance was/is very easy - usually, it's just a matter of re-jetting and knocking out the factory idle mixture limiter plugs, etc. Same with the ignition; changing timing/advance curves is very simple. And these engines respond positively to removal of things like the EGR and catalytic converter. In fact, gutting the entire emissions system on a typical mid-'70s car is both easy and dramatically improves the car's performance and driveability.


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    Vulture of The Western World Eric's Avatar
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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    "As a side note the older (non-computer controlled) cars such as the 2nd generation T/As are not cheap to maintain either."

    For basic maintenance - sure they are!

    My TA (and yours) needs 8 plugs ($15-20), an occasional spark plug wire/distributor cap set (maybe $100), engine oil/filter, air filter - and so on... all inexpensive and readily available.

    Yes, "correct" cores are expensive - but a car in good condition such as yours or mine doesn't need major components of that kind. An alternator or water pump, sure - but again, cheap and readily available.

    Now, restoring an old car is indeed a big bucks deal. But keeping a solid "driver" like yours or mine in good order almost indefinitely is pretty inexpensive. The "major parts" are not going to require new cores for decades, if ever. We may have to rebuild a carb at some point, or overhaul the engine.. but we already have the cores - so the actual cost of these (occasional) redos is pretty manageable.

    I can't think of a single "big ticket" item that's likely to happen with my TA or yours in the forseeable future. Can you? Just tune-ups, oil and filter changes. Cheap. Easy.

    Contrast that with the upkeep on the mid-'80s Camaro we were discussing. Unlike our cars, these cars have expensive as hell ECUs without which the car won't run or pass emissions (which they still must do). They have dozens of sensors, each of which often costs a lot of money. The emissions system is both complex and expensive to service. The AC is often "climate controlled" - and run by expensive electronics. There is a vast/complex/expensive wiring harness; our cars have simple mechanical systems and a wiring harness that could be completely replaced for a fraction of the cost (if it ever became necessary to do so - which it probably won't be).

    Now imagine the typical mid-20s guy trying to hold onto a 15-year-old IROC-Z like we held on to our TAs when we were younger. It's just not feasible. He hasn't got the cash (or the expertise) to pay for the necessary repairs. When the $1,500 ECU craps out, that's it. Finis. Conversely, I was able to easily afford the upkeep on my TA - purchased when I was 25 - because basic maintenance was simple because the car itself was simple. No complex systems, no electronics.

    Barring some unlikely catastrophic failure, the car itself could be kept operable for minimal cost by an owner with basic mechanical aptitude and a decent set of basic tools. Nothing fancy required.

    It's a huge difference, "then vs. now" - and I maintain that these differences have made it virtually impossible for average Joes to keep older "modern" cars.







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    Re: 1970 Buick GS 455 Stage 1 - Buick's Short Reign (updated edition)

    Swamprat,

    Actually a good rebuild of an electronic carb will give you years of reliable driveability.

    Eric,

    Good breakdown of electronic carbs and fuel injection systems.

    I agree with everything that you said, except I do believe that more of the modern older computer cars will survive even though they are expensive to maintain and buy parts for. However only time will tell.

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